Biodiversity Communities and Climate Change

For decades, biodiversity conservation and the sustainable use of natural resources have been the key challenges for development agencies and concerned stakeholders alike. The looming threat of climate change has only added to this complexity. Although evolution and the extinction of species are considered natural phenomena, the evidence of previous mass extinctions points mainly to massive climatic or environmental shifts. At present, the alarming rate of species extinction is accelerated by human activities for various developmental and livelihood needs and aspirations.

Documented evidence indicates that the loss of even a single species can have severe impacts on an ecosystem. Despite this fact, there is inadequate information and knowledge about the existing flora and fauna, which increases the challenge of conservation. A number of studies on biodiversity and its conservation exist but the challenge continues to be the striking of a balance among conservation, livelihood security, and countering the potential impacts of climate change.

In this context, this book, Biodiversity, Communities, and Climate Change, is designed to help in guiding the various principles of biodiversity conservation, effects of climate change, and the role of communities at various levels and in different landscapes. The book draws on the experiences of academicians and eminent scientists in the form of case studies and reviews revolving around key themes. There are 19 chapters, which cover a wide range of topics including tools of biodiversity assessment, ranging from conventional, ecological, and social survey methods to the use of the latest technology such as Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing.

The topical issues in different chapters range from local to regional levels and cover concerns for communities in livelihood security and poverty alleviation, conservation, effects of climate change on biodiversity and communities, and possible solutions for conserving the biodiversity and the ecosystem. The chapters are arranged under three broad thematic categories.

1. Fungal Biodiversity in Forests: Current

Knowledge and Future Challenges

Introduction

Materials and Methodology

Results and Discussion

Diversity of Fungi in India

Fungi Communities and Ecology

Fungal Biodiversity Conservation

Conclusion

References

2. Spiders (Araneae) in Bhyundar Valley

of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

Introduction

Materials and Methodology

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

3. Status of the Forest and Wildlife in

the Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary

Introduction

Methodology

Results

Discussion

References

4. Population and Management of Medicinal

Plants in Chhattisgarh

Introduction

Study Area

Methodology

Results and Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

5. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS

in Mapping the Plant Resources of Odisha

Introduction

Study Area

Materials and Methodology

Results and Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

6. Chemical Impact of Parthenium hysterophorus

Linn. on Some Economically Important Vegetables 71

Introduction

Materials and Methodology

Statistical Analysis

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

References

7. Genetic Factors Contributing to Plants

Vulnerability and Extinction

Introduction

Genetic Characters and Extinction

Comparison of Rare and Widespread Species

Implications for Conservation

Conclusion

References

91

91

92

97

99

101

101

8. Use of Geospatial Techniques in Monitoring and

Management of Biodiversity of Urban Ecosystems 113

Introduction

Monitoring Urban Biodiversity

Urban Biodiversity and Sustainability

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

Section II: Community, Livelihood, and Management

of Biodiversity

9. From Cabbage to Conservation: Case of

Community Forest Conservation by Hmong

Tribe in Northern Thailand

Introduction

Study Area

Methodology

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

Reference

RS–GIS Applications in Urban Biodiversity Management 130

Future Research

10. Increasing Livelihood Security through

Kuth Cultivation in Tons Watershed,

Garhwal Himalaya

Introduction

Uttarakhand: A State Of Medicinal and

Aromatic Plants

Role of SHER in farming of Kuth

References

11. Case Study of Traditional Agroecosystems

in Patharkot Village, Uttarakhand

Introduction

Study Area

Methodology

Structure of the System

Conclusion

References

12. Conservation and Livelihood Links

of Joint Management of Protected Area

in Phutoei National Park, Thailand

Introduction

Study Area

Methodology

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

References

13. Sustainable Utilization and Management

of Timur by Communities in Uttarakhand

Introduction

Materials

Study Area

Collection practices of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 169

Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Methodology

Results

Discussion

References

14. Ethno-taxonomical Study of Medicinal

Plants in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

Introduction

Methodology

Results and Discussion

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

15. Indigenous Knowledge, Use of NTFPs,

and Biodiversity Conservation in Uttarakhand

Introduction

Study Area

Methodology

Results and Discussion

Conclusion

References

Section III: Climate Change and Biodiversity

Conservation

16. Climate Change and Challenges of

Biodiversity Conservation

Introduction

Effects of Climate Change on Biodiversity

Climate Change Mitigation Strategies

and CDM Projects

References

Acknowledgement

17. Role of Forests and Associated Traditional

Knowledge of Local Communities in

Climate Change Adaptation

Introduction

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on

Forests and Forest-dependent Communities

Sustainable Forest Management and Climate

Change Adaptation

Indigenous Knowledge on Coping Strategies

Discussion and Conclusion

References

18. Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies of

Climate Change for Sustainable Agriculture

Introduction

Brief Overview of Climate Change in India

Linkages Between Agriculture and Climate Change

Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture

Climate Change Concern in Horticulture

Animal Husbandry and Climate Change

Climate Change Concern in Fisheries

Adaptation to and Mitigation of Climate Change

in the Agriculture Sector

Suggestive Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

19. Climate Change Mitigation: Potential of

Growing Tree Species of Medicinal Value

Introduction

Study Area

Methodology

Results

Net Present Value

Discussion and Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

Index 317

About the Editors