Environmental Studies

Nature consists of two very much complex, interdependent mutually reactive and

interrelated entities�the organisms and the environment. The organisms can survive only

in appropriate environments, interact with each other, and are influenced by the whole complex

of enviornmental factors. The various principles that govern the relationships between the

organisms and environment is called ecology. The term 'ecology' (Gk. Oikos�house or place

to live, logos�study or discourse) was first introduced by a German biologist Ernst Haeckel

(1869), and defined it as 'the study of reciprocal relationships between organisms and their

environment'. Ecology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of interactions between

organisms and environment. An understanding of ecological principles is essential for the

sustainable use of resources and to evolve strategies for the mitigation of environmental

problems at local, regional and global levels.


1. Environmental Studies - Scope and Importance
2. Natural Resources
3. Ecosystem
4. Biodiversity and Its Conservation
5. Environmental Pollution
6. Social Issues and the Environment
7. Human Population and the Environment
8. Field Work