Towards Cleaner Technologies Towards Cleaner Technologies

Towards Cleaner Technologies

In India, small and micro enterprises or SMiEs comprise a wide variety of

units, ranging from tiny artisan-based cottage industries and household

enterprises to small-scale manufacturing firms. There is great diversity

among them—in their patterns of ownership, organizational structures,

technologies, financial status, and other characteristics. However, SMiEs do

have a few common features as well. In general, an SMiE is managed by its

owner(s) in a personalized way; it has a relatively small share of the market

in financial terms; and its small and independent nature makes it relatively

free from outside control in decision-making. SMiE operators and workers

usually acquire their skills by tradition; these skills are transmitted through

the generations with minimal change or up-gradation.


Small and micro enterprises in India

The protected years

Liberalization challenges

The environmental imperative

A partnership is forged

SDC—human and institutional development

TERI—global vision, local focus

The macro-level study

The scope for intervention

Screening workshop, December 1994

Getting started

Cluster-level intervention

Finding the right technology

Participatory technology

Capacity building: key to sustainability

Structuring the interventions

Action research

Competence pooling


Energy from biomass

Biomass-based enterprises

Biomass gasification

Exploring new avenues: TERI and gasifier technology

The silk route


Process—from silkworm egg to raw silk

Silk reeling units: field realities

SDC and TERI—early activities

TERI's field survey

Exploring options

The spice route


Enter: SDC and TERI

Exploring options


Silk reeling

From lab to field: hindupur yarn

Ramanagaram yarn: participatory approach

Siddlaghatta yarn: low-cost approach

Rewinding the reel—a barrier analysis

Silk dyeing

Development of gasifier-based dyeing oven

Manufacture and marketing

Large cardamom curing

Developing the gasifier

Test marketing of improved-quality cardamom

Training and awareness generation

Developing a commercial version

One step forward, two steps back

Applications: the larger web

Salt of the earth: Kharagoda

Large-scale cooking in rural areas

Green brick drying

Beas: gasifier for community cooking

Hot water for hotels

Gasifiers for midday meals

Gasifier-based cremation

Gasifiers for drying rubber

Taking stock

Technology development and dissemination

Potential for gasifier technology—manufacturers' views

Future potential and challenges



Annexure 1: Overview of sericulture

History of silk

State presence in the indian silk industry

Central Silk Board

Central Silk Technological Research Institute

Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute

Cocoon markets

Silk exchanges

Making raw silk from cocoons—process

Rearing cocoons

Reeling the cocoons

Annexure 2: Field survey of silk reeling ovens

Energy audits

Annexure 3: The Hindupur experience

From lab to field

Mark 0: proof of concept

Mark 1: laboratory model

Mark 1: field model

Annexure 4: The Ramanagaram experience

From field to commercial model

Mark 2: improved field model

Mark 3: industrial prototype

Mark 4: commercial prototype

Annexure 5: The Siddlaghatta experience


Technology development